The Luminous Icons of Ultra Violet: Leg Four

Original Story by Aaron J. Sams (2017-10-09)

The fourth leg of The Joshua Tree 2017 has started, and like the three legs before it, “Ultra Violet” is featured in the show, and accompanying the song is a visual story titled “HerStory.”

You can find information on the first three legs at the following links:

The visual piece that accompanies the song “Ultra Violet” is a set of photographs of women which play on the background screen while U2 perform “Ultra Violet (Light My Way)”. The piece opens with the word “HISTORY” on the screen, which is slowly replaced with “HERSTORY.” During the remainder of the song the screen is separated in five roughly square areas. One square is generally used to focus on the band. The other four square displays images of women with dates. The images are tinted in bright colours, pinks, greens, purples, yellows, reds and blues.

The women come from a wide range of periods of history, a wide range of backgrounds, but most are recognized as playing a role in human rights throughout the ages. Since the start of the tour, new faces have been added at almost every show. During the first leg, some of these additions were geographical depending on where the tour was performing. As one woman is added another is typical removed, however this has not always been the case. On every night of the tour, except for the second nights in Pasadena, Chicago, Paris and Amsterdam, there were changes in these women on the screen. Every night of the third leg of the tour had different women.
The images on the screen are being developed in conjunction with Herstory. (@herstory_uk/herstoryuk.org) The Herstory project is a project founded and run by Alice Wroe, and the Herstory website explains that they “use feminist art to engage people of all genres with women’s history”. The group hosts workshops at cultural and educational institutions throughout the UK, and have been consulting with U2 on the images used on the screen during “Ultra Violet.”

U2.Com has published an interview with Wroe, who speaks about the development of this piece, and goes into more detail about how the women are chosen and how they are organized on the screen.

The end of the video on the screens shows one image across the entire screen, a group of women, holding a banner saying “Women of the World Unite!” then changing to “Poverty is Sexist” and finally ending with “The power of the people is so much stronger than the people in power”. Bono typically uses the end of the song as an opportunity to talk about One. “Poverty is Sexist“ is also one of the campaigns being run by One.Org, which Bono supports.

Below we are keeping track of each of the women appearing on the screens thus far on the third leg of the tour, and what cities each has appeared in. We have also included a short biography for some of the accomplishment of these women, as well as information about when they were born. As the women are moving about in the screen now, we are now listing these women alphabetically. After the alphabetic listings are a list of organizations and groups shown during this piece on this screen, and then after that, a list of the changes made with each show.

GUIDE TO SHOWS ON LEG 4:


[M1=Mexico 1, M2=Mexico 2, B=Bogota, BA1=Buenos Aires 1, BA2=Buenos Aires 2, S=Santiago, SP1=Sao Paulo 1, SP2=Sao Paulo 2, SP3=Sao Paulo 3, SP4=Sao Paulo 4]

WOMEN FEATURED IN THEHERSTORY”:

Isabel Allende (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Allende was born in Peru and after her father disappeared relocated to Chile at a young age. She worked as a writer, a translator and a columnist for newspapers. In 1996 she started the Isabel Allende Foundation dedicated to supporting the fundamental rights of women and children to be empowered and protected. Allende was born in 1942. Allende appeared during leg 2 in Berlin, and for every night after on that leg. She was dropped from the screens for leg 3 in the USA, but returns to the screens in Mexico for leg 4.

Tránsito Amaguaña (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Amaguaña was an Ecuadorian leader of the indigenous movement. She was born into a family of slaves, and later suffered at the hands of an abusive husband through an arranged marriage. She became involved in the Socialist party, and eventually freed herself from her husband, and became involved in social justice marches for her people. She later joined the Communist party, and traveled to Cuba and Russia to represent Ecuador. She fought her entire life for equality and justice for her people. Tránsito Amaguaña lived from 1909 to 2009. Her first appearance was for the shows in Mexico.

Carmen Aristegui (*M1,*M2)
Aristegui is a Mexican journalist and television personality, known for her investigative reporting, and reports on the Mexican government and sexual abuse of minors. She works for CNN and the Reforma newspaper in Mexico. Aristegui was born in 1964. Her first appearance was on screen during the two shows in Mexico.

Michelle Bachelet (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Bachelet is a Chilean politician, and is the current president of Chile. She became the first female president of Chile in 2006. Bachelet was born in 1951. Her first appearance on screen was the first show in Mexico.

Bastardilla (*B)
Bastardilla is a female street artist who is active in Bogota, Columbia. Her art confronts gender inequality, the trials of Latin American women, and the fight to end violence in South America, and her work is now recognized around the world. Bastardilla’s first appearance on screen was the show in Bogota, Colombia.

Elena Caffarena (*S)
Caffarena is a Chilean lawyer, and politician. Caffarena was an activist as well, devoting much of her life to the struggle for women’s emancipation, and she was a founder of the organization “Movimiento Pro-Emancipacion de las Mujeres de Chile” in 1938, a women’s right movement which advocated for equality. Caffarena lived from 1903 to 2003. Her first appearance on the screen was at the tour stop in Santiago, Chile.

Rachel Carson (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Carson is an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist. The books that she has written includes Silent Spring, a book which changed the course of conservation in North America. Carson lived from 1940 to 1964. Carson was added to the screens for one show on the first leg in Pittsburgh. She appeared every night in the third leg of the tour in the USA. She returned to the screens in Mexico for the fourth leg.

Rosario Castelanos (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Castelanos was a Mexican poet and author. She was an important literary voice in Mexico City after World War II, and is recognized as opening the doors of Mexican literature to women. Castelanos lived from 1925 to 1974. Her first appearance on screen was during the opening show in Mexico City.

Hilary Rodham Clinton (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Clinton is an American politician, who most recently was the Democratic Party’s nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election. She has served as the Secretary of State, the US Senator from New York, and First Lady of the United States. Clinton was born in 1947. She had appeared on the first leg in the USA, but was dropped for the start of the second leg, but was reintroduced in Dublin, and appeared at every show from Dublin to the end of the leg. She appeared at every show in the USA on the third leg of the tour, and as of Mexico is now appearing on the fourth leg of the tour.

Celia Cruz (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Cruz is a singer and performer of Latin Music, born in Cuba. Cruz was out of the country when Castro determined that artists traveling abroad would not be allowed back in the country, and she settled in the US. Cruz became quite popular in a traditionally male dominated genre, and released dozens of albums during her career. Cruz lived between 1925 and 1977. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Emily Wilding Davison (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Davison was a Suffragette who was part of the movement to bring the vote to women in the UK in the early 20th century, and was known for extreme tactics, and was arrested on nine different occasions. Davison lived from 1872 – 1913. Davison appeared on the screens every night during leg one of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo and returned to the first two shows on the second leg, but was removed for the show in Berlin and did not appear again until the start of leg three. At the show in Detroit, she reappears on the screen but her name is incorrectly listed as “Rosie Hackett” who had taken that place in leg two, it was fixed for the next two shows in Buffalo and Minneapolis, but again in Indianapolis the mistake reappeared and she was one again listed as “Rosie Hackett” even though the image was of Davison. She appeared with the correct name for the remainder of leg three, and now continues onto leg four with the Mexico shows.

Julia De Burgos (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
De Burgos is a poet and educator from Puerto Rico. She would later in life become a politician serving with the women’s branch of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, advocating Puerto Rican Independence. De Burgos lived from 1914 to 1953. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Ellen Degeneres (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Ellen is an American comedian, television host, writer and producer. She came out as a lesbian in 1997, and has been an active advocate for LGBT rights since that time. She is a member of Parents & Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG), and she acts as a spokesperson for the Human Rights campaign’s Coming Out Project. Ellen was born in 1958. Degeneres appeared on the screens every night during leg one of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo, but did not appear at all during leg two in Europe. She returned in Detroit for leg three of the tour and appeared every night during that leg, and now returns in Mexico for leg four.

Juana Inés de la Cruz (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
de la Cruz is a scholar, philosopher and poet in New Spain (near Mexico City). She asked her family to allow her to disguise herself as a male to continue her education at the age of 12, but they denied this request, and she continued her education privately through a series of tutors. Her writing included defense of a women’s right to education, and she urged the foundation of an order of female educators. de la Cruz lived between 1651 and 1695. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Nawal El Saadawi (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
El Saadawi is an Egyptian writer, physician, and psychiatrist, and she has written many books about women in Islam. She is the founder and president of the Arab Woman’s Solidarity Association, and the co-founder of the Arab Association for Human Rights. El Saadawi was born in 1931. El Saadawi appeared on the screens every night during legs one through three of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. As of Mexico she is appearing for the fourth leg as well.

Ruth Ellis (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Ellis was an African-American woman, who spent her life crusading for the LGBT and African American rights. She was a lesbian herself, and the Ruth Ellis Center is an organization that is dedicated to helping homeless LGBT youth and young adults. Ellis lived from 1899 – 2000. She appeared on screen every night during the first leg of the tour including Bonnaroo, but was dropped from the screens in Europe on the second leg, returning in Detroit for the start of leg three and now appearing in Mexico for the start of leg four.

Gloria Estefan (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Estefan is a singer and performer, born in Cuba. She moved to Miami at an early age, due to the Cuban revolution, and started her career with the Miami Sound Machine in the late 1970s, gaining success in the 1980s, and now being billed as a solo artist on most recordings. Estefan was born in 1957. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

María Félix (*M1,*M2)
Félix (María de los Ángeles Félix Güereña) is a Mexican actress and singer. She was popular in Mexican films during the 1940s and 1950s. Félix was born in 1913 and lived until 2002. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Andrea Gamarnik (*BA1,*BA2)
Garmarnik is an Argentinian molecular virologist, who has worked on mosquito borne diseases, most notably on the Dengue fever. Gamarnik was born in 1964. She first appeared on screen during the fourth leg of the tour, with her first appearance on screen being during the shows in Argentina.

Lélia Gonzalez (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Gonzalez is a Brazilian educator, anthropologist and politician. Gonzalez taught at university during the sixties, and helped to found the Black Movement of Brazil, the Research Institute of Black Cultures, and was an activist in defense of black women’s rights. She also worked for the National Council on Women’s Rights in Brazil, and eventually joined politics as a candidate first for the Workers’ Party and later for the Democratic Labour Party. Gonzalez lived between 1935 and 1994. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Ivone Guimarães (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Guimarães was born in Brazil, and worked as an educator in Brazil. She was also a suffragist, advocating for the right of women to vote, and indeed, Guimarães was the first woman in Brazil to vote. She lived between 1908 and 1999. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Salma Hayek (*M1,*M2)
Hayek is a Mexican-American actress, model and producer. She was born in Mexico, and she grew up and started her career there. She left and moved to Los Angeles in 1991 at the age of 25. Hayek has acted as an advocate for increasing awareness of violence against women and discrimination against immigrants, and against women internationally. Hayek was born in 1966. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Dolores Huerta (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Huerta is an American labour leader and civil rights activist. She was born in New Mexico, and helped to co-found the National Farmworkers Association (now the United Farm Workers). Her career as an activist included advocacy on behalf of Spanish speaking residents of the US, protection of children, and advocacy for consumer rights. In 1988, during a peaceful protest of George H.W. Bush, she was severely beaten and required surgery by the police in San Francisco, and she later won a judgement against the city, and the police department there. Huerta was born in 1930. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Caterine Ibargüen (*B)
Ibargüen is a Columbian athlete, who has competed in two Olympics, winning gold in 2016, and silver in 2012. She currently resides in Puerto Rico. She was born in 1984. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the show in Bogota, Colombia.

Katherine Johnson (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Johnson is an African-American physicist and mathematician who’s early work with NASA was in the field of digital electronic computers. During her time with NASA she would be responsible for calculation of trajectories, and launch windows for many flights. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2015. Johnson was born in 1918. Johnson first appeared on screen in Detroit on the opening night of the third leg of the tour. She is now appearing in leg four as of the opening show in Mexico.

Ashley Judd (*S)
Ashley Judd is an American actress, but these days she’s rapidly becoming more known for her work as a political activist. Her humanitarian work revolves around HIV/AIDS, and she has worked with the YouthAIDS project, she is part of the leadership council for the International Center for Research on Women, she’s been involved with Women for Women International and Equality Now and the San Francisco Child Abuse Prevention Center. Judd also accompanied Bono on his tour of America’s ‘Heartland’ to raise consciousness about AIDS in 2002. Judd was born in 1968. Judd has appeared on three separate legs, at the first show in London in leg two, at the shows in Phoenix and San Diego on leg three, and now first appears on the fourth leg in Santiago.

Frida Kalho (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Kahlo was a Mexican artist. She painted mostly self-portraits, and used a folk art style in her paintings. Her work has been celebrated internationally as representative of Mexican national and indigenous traditions, and by feminists for her depiction of the female experience. Kahlo lived from 1907 to 1954. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Maria Theresa Kumar (*B)
Kumar is an American activist and television personality born in Bogota, Colombia. She is the founder and CEO of Voto Latino and activism group that seeks to engage Latinos in the civic process. She also hosts the show Changing America on MSNBC.Com. Kumar was born in 1974. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the show in Bogota, Colombia.

La Pola (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
La Pola is a name for Policarpa Salavarrieta, a woman who is an important figure in the Independence of Columbia. Salavarrieta was a seamstress, who spied for the Revolutionary Forces, ultimately captured by Spanish Royalists, and executed for treason. She is considered a heroine in the independence of Columbia. Her legal given name is unknown, and she used a number of aliases, including asking those she worked with as La Pola. She was born sometime between 1790 and 1796, in Colombia, and died in 1817. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Argelia Laya (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Laya was a Venezuelan suffragist who campaigned for a woman’s right to vote, to have children outside of wedlock, and to obtain an abortion. She also advocated for young girls to remain in school regardless of whether they were pregnant. She also founding the National Union of Women calling for the right to vote. Laya lived from 1926 to 1997. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Bertha Lutz (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Lutz is a Brazilian scientist, studying zoology, and later a politician and diplomat. Lutz was a leading figure in the feminist movement, and human rights movement, and a leader in the fight for women’s suffrage. Lutz lived from 1894 to 1976. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Wangari Maathai (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Matthai is a political activist, environmentalist, and Nobel laureate. She is the founder of the Green Belt Movement. She was born in 1940, and died in 2011. Maathai appeared on the screens every night during leg one of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She was dropped for the second leg of the tour, but returned on the first night of leg three to the screens, appearing every night, and now continues onto the fourth leg of the tour as of Mexico City.

Moms Mabley (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Moms Mabley is the stage name of Loretta Aiken, an American stand up comedian, once billed “The Funniest Woman in the World”. She would often tackle topics such as racism. She came out as a lesbian and was one of the first openly gay comedians. Aiken lived from 1894 to 1975. Mabley appeared on the screens every night during leg one through three of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She now appears on leg four as well as of the first show in Mexico City.

Josefina Martorell (*BA1,*BA2)
Martorell is an Argentina native, and she has been playing football professionally since the age of 15. She is part of an organization called Futbol Militante where women occupy public spaces usually reserved for me to play football and she is an advocate for women’s equality in the sport of football. Martorell was born in 1982. Her first appearance on the screen was for the first show in Argentina on the fourth leg of the tour.

Gabriela Mistral (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Mistral was a pseudonym of Lucila Godoy y Alcayaga, a Chile born poet, educator, and diplomat. In 1945 she was the first Latin America writer to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. She left Chile to represent the country on the world stage, working as a consul and diplomat. Mistral lived from 1889 to 1957. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Totó la Momposina (*B)
La Momposina is a Columbian singer and entertainer. The name is a pseudonym for Sonia Bazanta Vides. As an entertainer she has won a number of awards including a Grammy Award. She was born in 1940. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the show in Bogota, Colombia.

Teresa Wilms Montt (*S)
Montt was a Chilean writer and poet. She was a well known feminist. Her travels took her to New York, where she was deported to Spain under suspicion of being a spy during World War I. She was born in 1893 and lived to 1921. Her first appearance on the screen was in Santiago, Chile.

Mother Teresa (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Mother Teresa was a Roman Catholic nun and missionary, and is know known in the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta. Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, which manages homes for people dying of HIV / AIDS, leprosy, and TB; as well as children and family counseling programs, orphanages and schools. She lived from 1910 to 1997. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Rigoberta Menchú (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Menchú is a political activist from Guatemala. She has spent her life advocating for equal rights for indigenous females during and after the Civil War in Guatemala. She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992. She was born in 1959. Her first appearance on the screens was during the fourth leg, for the first show in Mexico.

Angela Merkel (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Merkel is the current Chancellor of Germany, and a leading figure in the European Union. Merkel has a background as a chemist, but entered into politics in 1989. Merkel was born in 1954. Merkel appeared on the screens every night during leg one through three of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She is now appearing on the screens for leg four as of the first show in Mexico.

Connie Mudenda (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Mudenda is a (RED) Ambassador and an HIV-positive AIDS activist. Connie lost all three of her children to AIDS, but has since had a daughter who was born HIV free in 2012. She was born in 1970. Mudenda appeared on the screens every night during leg one and three of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She was dropped for the second leg of the tour. She is now appearing on the fourth leg of the tour as of the opening night in Mexico.

Michelle Obama (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Obama is an American lawyer and writer, and also served as First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. Obama is an advocate for poverty awareness. Obama was born in 1964. An error was made on screen in Seattle that listed her birthday as 1954. It was corrected for the next show in Santa Clara. Obama first appeared on screen during the first leg, missing only the opening show in Vancouver. She was dropped for the second leg of the tour, but returned and appeared every night during leg three. She is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Ellen Ochoa (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Ochoa is an American engineer, astronaut, and the director of the Johnson Space Center. Ochoa was born in Los Angeles, and obtained a doctorate in electrical engineering, selected by NASA in January 1990 and became an astronaut in 1991. She was the first Hispanic woman in the world to go into space in 1993. Ochoa was born in 1958. She is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Rosa Parks (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Parks refused to give up her seat in the coloured section on a bus to a white passenger in 1955, and was arrested for civil disobedience. Her defiance became a symbol of the Civil Rights Movement. Parks was born in 1913, and died in 2005. Parks appeared on the screens every night during leg one of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo, but was removed for the second leg. She returned to the screen on the first night of leg three and appeared each night that leg. She is also now appearing on the fourth leg of the tour as of the opening night in Mexico City.

Eva Peron (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Peron was born into poverty in Argentina, and grew up to pursue a career in acting. She eventually married and became First Lady of Argentina, and during her time as First Lady she spoke on behalf of labour rights, championed women’s suffrage in Argentina, and founded a feminist party. She lived from 1919 to 1952. She is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Violeta Parra (*S)
Parra was a chilean songwriter, entertainer and artist. She was known for her popularizing of Chilean folk music, and is known as “The Mother of Latin American Folk.” One of her songs “Gracias a la Vida” was popularized by anohter luminous icon, Mercedes Sosa, and others. Parra was an inspiration for Victor Jara. Parra lived from 1917 to 1967. Her first appearance on the screens was in Santiago, Chile.

Frédérique Petrides (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Petrides was a Belgian-American conductor, well known for her skill with the violin. She founded the Orchestrette Classique in New York City, which was made up of women musicians, and she also published the newsletter Women in Music. Petrides lived from 1903 – 1983. Petrides appeared every night on leg one except in Vancouver and Toronto, and also appeared every night on leg two and three. Petrides returns for the fourth leg.

Khalida Popal (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Popal became the first female captain of the Afghan National Football team. At the time there were four women on the team. Popal faced threats, and has since retired, but now speaks out on sport as a vehicle to achieve gender equality. Popal appeared on the screens every night during leg one of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She appeared every night on leg two and three. She is also now appearing on the fourth leg.

Sylvia Rivera (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Rivera was an American drag queen, and entertainer. She was a close friend to Marsha P. Johnson, whose place she takes in the luminous icons presentation. She was a founding member of the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance, and co-founded the Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (STAR) a group dedicated to helping homeless trans persons. Rivera lived from 1951 to 2002. She is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Mary Robinson (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Robinson is an Irish lawyer and politician, and served as the first female President of Ireland from 1990 to 1997. She then worked as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights until 2002. In 2004 Robinson received Amnesty International’s Ambassador of Conscience Award for her work promoting human rights. Robinson was born in 1944. Robinson appeared on the screens in leg one, but was removed after the Seattle show and didn’t return until the first night in Chicago. She appeared every night on leg two and three of the tour. She is also now appearing in the fourth leg of the tour.

Sylvia Robinson (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Robinson was a singer, musician and record label executive, and is sometimes known as the “Mother of Hip-Hop” due to her work as the drivign force behind several early rap singles. She also recorded herself under the names Little Sylvia, Mickey and Sylvia (with guitarist Mickey Baker), Sylvia Robbins, or just Sylvia. Robinson was born Sylvia Vanderpool, and lived from 1935 to 2011. Robinson first appeared on screen first leg in Chicago and every night after that. She appeared every night on leg two and three. She is now appearing on the fourth leg as well.

Helen Rodriguez Trias (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Trias is a pediatrician, educator, and women’s rights activist. She was the first Latina president of the American Public Health Association, and has been credited with expanding the range of health care services for women and children in minority and low income populations of North, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and the Middle East. She lived from 1929 to 2001. She is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Begum Rokeya (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Rokeya was a Bengali writer, social activist and a champion of women’s rights. She advocated that men and women should be treated equal in her writing. Rokeya lived from 1880 – 1932. Rokeya appeared on the screens every night during leg one through three of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She is also now appearing in the fourth leg of the tour.

Comandanta Ramona (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Comandanta Ramona was a name used by an officer in a Mexican Revolutionary organization, and was one of seven female commanders in charge of directing that army consisting of one-third women. She was recognized as a symbol of equality and dignity for indigenous and impoverished women in Mexico. Comandanta Ramona is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Sola Sierra (*S)
Sierra was a Chilean human rights activist. She led a campaign to investigate the disappearance of hundreds of political dissidents in Chle under the dictatorship of Pinochet. She acted as president of an organization called Relatives of the Detained-Disappeared, and was active in the movement that lead to Pinochet stepping down. Sierra lived from 1935 to 1999. Her first appearance on the screen was during the show in Santiago, Chile.

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Sirleaf is a politician in Liberia, and is currently serving as president of that country. She is the first woman to be elected to a head of state position in Africa. She was born in 1938. Sirleaf appeared on the screens in leg one every night except for one. She was not present on the screen in Toronto which was the first show she wasn’t present, but returned to the screen at the next show in Boston. She returned to the screen for the second and third legs appearing each night, and is now featured on leg fourth as of the Mexico show.

Mercedes Sosa (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Sosa was an Argentinian singer and entertainer, sometimes known as La Negra. She was a folk performer, and has performed around the world. She also supported a number of causes throughout her life, and served as a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador for Latin America and The Carribean. Sosa lived between 1935 and 2009. She is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Sonia Sotomayer (*M1,*M2)
Sotomayer is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the USA. She is the first justice of Hispanic heritage, and the first Latina to serve on the Supreme Court. She was born in 1954. She is now appearing on screen as of the opening show in Mexico City.

Patti Smith (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Smith is an American singer, writer, poet and artist. She came to popularity during the 1970s in the punk rock movement. Smith may be known among U2 fans by her song “People Have the Power” which was used to open concerts during the 2015 tour. Smith was born in 1946. Smith appeared on the screens every night during leg one through three of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She returns to the screens on leg four.

Susana Trimarco (*BA1,*BA2)
Trimarco is an Argentinian human rights activist. Her efforts to combat human trafficking and corruption began after her daughter disappeared in 2002. Her Fundación María de los Ángeles is credited with rescuing hundreds of young women who had been kidnapped in Argentina. Trimarco was born in 1954. Her first appearance on the screen was for the first performance in Argentina on the fourth leg of the tour.

María Elena Walsh (*BA1,*BA2)
Walsh is an Argentinian writer, poet, musician and artist. She is most widely known for her childrens books. Her song “Oración a la justicia” became a civil rights anthem in Argentina during the military dictatorship. Walsh was born in 1930 and lived until 2011. Her first appearance on the screen was for the first performance in Argentina on the fourth leg of the tour.

Oprah Winfrey (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2)
Oprah is a media figure, actress, and philanthropist, best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show. Oprah was born in 1954. Winfrey appeared on the screens every night during leg one of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo but was not featured on leg two at all. She appeared again on screen for leg three in Detroit, appearing every night on that leg, and is now appearing on leg four as of Mexico.

Mary Wollstonecraft (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Wollstonecraft was an English writer in the late 1700s. She is possibly best known for her book A Vindication of the Rights of Women published in 1792, where she argued that women are not inferior to men, they just lack the education provided to men. Wollstonecraft lived from 1759 to 1797. Wollstonecraft first appeared on the screens at the first concert in Chicago, IL. She appeared every night on leg two and three. For many of the shows, the photo accompanying Wollstonecraft’s name was not hers, but actually her daughter Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein. The image was fixed on the third leg, and the shows in Mexico and South America are showing the proper image of Wollstonecraft.

Malala Yousafzai (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Yousafzai is an activist from Pakistan for female education, and is the youngest ever Nobel laureate. In 2012, Malala was injured after a Taliban gunman attempted to murder her, and since recovering she has become a prominent education activist. She was born in 1997. Yousafzai appeared on the screens every night during leg one of the tour, including the performance at Bonnnaroo. She appeared every night on leg two and three and she is also now appearing on leg four.

EVENTS AND ORGANIZATIONS FEATURED IN “HERSTORY”:

Madres De Plaza De Mayo (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, is an organization of Argentinian mothers whose children have disappeared due to state terrorism of the military dictatorship in the 1970s and 80s. The song “Mothers of the Disappeared” was inspired by this organization. Their first appearance on screen was during the first show on the fourth leg in Mexico City.

Match Girls Strike (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
The Match Girls Strike in 1888 was a strike in London in 1888 where women and teenage girls went on strike to protest poor working conditions in a match factory in London. They were featured each night of the second and third legs of the tour except for Dublin, and now return for the fourth leg of the tour.

Mirabel Sisters (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
The Mirabel Sisters were four sisters from Dominica, who opposed the dictatorship of El Chivo, and participated in activities against his regime. Three of the sisters were assassinated in 1960 for their opposition, becoming symbols of popular and feminist resistance.

Ni Una Menos (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Ni Una Menos is an Argentinian feminist movement which has spread across several Latin American countries. The organization campaigns against gender based violence, and has also tackled issues such as gender roles, sexual harassment, legality of abortion and other issues. They were formed in 2015.

Pussy Riot (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Pussy Riot is a punk rock group from Russia, who have staged numerous performances where they would promote themes such as feminism, LGBT rights, and would oppose Russian president Vladimir Putin. They were featured each night of the first, second and third legs of the tour and now return for leg four.

Suffragettes (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Suffragettes were members of women’s organizations in the late 19th century who were advocating for the vote to be extended to women. The movement reached through the UK, USA, Canada and other countries. They were featured each night of the first , second, and third leg of the tour and return now for the fourth leg.

Wasp Women Airforce Service Pilots (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2)
This was a military aviation organization, made up of women, employed to fly military aircraft under the direction of the United States Army Air Forces during world war II. The organization was formed in 1943 from two groups that had been organized separate in 1942 during World War II. They were featured each night of the tour so far.

Women of the Young Lords (*M1,*M2,*B,*BA1,*BA2,*S)
Women of the Young Lords was an organization formed in Puerto Rico, which advocated for gender equality, and challenged male authority in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the Young Lords, a nationalist group.

CHANGES IN THEHERSTORY”:

As mentioned, most nights there are changes to these presentations on the screens. With the start of the fourth leg in Mexico, the number of women who have appeared on the screen every night on the tour has decreased again. Women who appeared every night prior to Mexico, which were dropped for that show include Edith Margaret Garrud, bell hooks, Grace Jones, Saffiyah Khan, Poly Styrene, Rosetta Tharpe and Alice Walker. These women appeared every night on the first three legs of the tour.

The women continuing into the fourth leg who have appeared every night, and have yet to miss a single show include just seven women, El Saadawi, Moms Mabley, Angela Merkel, Khalida Popal, Begum Rokya, Patti Smith and Malala Yousafzai. The show in Mexico introduced a set of 27 new women to the screen, many of which will likely become permanent fixtures in the presentation this leg.

Both shows in Mexico had the same women appearing on the screen. After the Mexico shows, Salma Hayek, Carmen Aristegui, Maria Felix and Sonia Sotomayer were removed from the screens. In the next concert in Bogota, Caterine Ibarguen, Bastardilla, Maria Theresa Kumar, and Toto La Momposino took their place.

Both nights of performance in Buenos Aires used the same women. Ibarguen, Bastardilla, Kumar and La Momposino are all removed from the presentation for Argentina, and in their place are Susana Trimarco, Maria Elena Walsh, Josefina Martorell, and Andrea Gamarnik for both nights. The performance in Santiago removed Trimarco, Walsh, Martorell and Gamarnik, but also removed Oprah Winfrey who had appeared each night this leg. In their place are Sola Sierra, Violeta Parra, Elena Caffarena and Teresa Wilms Montt, and Ashley Judd takes the place of Oprah Winfrey.

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